By admin in 科技 on 2021年3月18日


Two stem-cell researchers have won this years Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their groundbreaking work in cellular reprogramming, a technique that unleashed a wave of advances in biology, from cloning to the possible treatment of diseases using a patients own cells.两位干细胞研究者因其在细胞新的编程方面的首创型工作,取得了今年诺贝尔生理或医学奖。细胞新的编程技术引起了一轮生物学变革浪潮,其中还包括克隆以及有可能用于病人自身细胞来医治疾病。

Experiments by John B. Gurdon of the United Kingdom and Shinya Yamanaka of Japan showed that mature cells taken from the body could be changed to an embryonic-like state in a laboratory dish, a head-spinning discovery that is the biological equivalent of turning back time.英国人格登(John B. Gurdon)和日本人山中伸弥(Shinya Yamanaka)的试验指出,来源于人体的成熟期细胞可在实验室培养皿中改变为类似于胚胎状态的细胞。这是一项令人震惊的找到,在生物学上相等于将时光翻转。Their work has changed the accepted dogma that mature cells are condemned to exist in a specialized state, said Martin Evans, a British stem-cell pioneer who shared the 2007 Nobel Prize for medicine, in an interview.英国干细胞研究先驱、曾于2007年共享诺贝尔医学奖的埃文斯(Martin Evans)在拒绝接受专访时说,他们的工作转变了人们指出的成熟期细胞不能存活于特定状态下的固有观点。

Cellular reprogramming triggered the rewriting of biology textbooks and spawned thousands of new experiments in labs around the world. It led to the first cloned animal-a frog-and to the first cloned mammal, Dolly the sheep. It also paved the way for deriving embryonic-like stem cells without destroying human embryos, sidestepping an ethically contentious approach.细胞新的编程引起了生物教科书的重写,在世界各地的试验室里促成了成千上万项新试验。这项技术带给了世界上首只克隆动物──青蛙,进而又经常出现了首只克隆哺乳动物──绵羊多莉。此外,该技术还为在不毁坏人类胚胎的情况下提供类胚胎干细胞铺平了道路,从而防止使用具备伦理争议的干细胞萃取方法。Once cellular reprogramming is used to turn mature cells into embryonic-like ones, those cells can be further manipulated and turned into heart, nerve, muscle and virtually all other tissues types. This freshly made tissue-from an Alzheimers patient, for example-could be inexpensively grown and studied in a lab dish.一旦细胞新的编程被用作将成熟期细胞改变为类胚胎细胞,这些细胞就可以被更进一步培育成心脏、神经、肌肉等完全一切组织细胞。

例如,从患阿尔茨海默病的人身上新的提供的的组织可在试验室经培育和研究,且花费不多。Drug firms have already started to test drugs on human tissue made through reprogramming. Next year, fresh retinal cells derived in this way will be transplanted into people for the first time, in a Japanese trial for patients with an eye disease known as macular degeneration.制药企业已开始对通过新的编程取得的人体的组织展开药物试验。明年,用这种方法取得的新生视网膜细胞将首次被迁移人体,在日本对患上黄斑恶性肿瘤眼疾的病人展开临床试验化疗。

Scientists used to believe the fate of our cells was a one-way trip. We start as a fertilized egg; become an embryo consisting of immature, undifferentiated cells; then gradually develop into a body of specialist cells, including blood, bone, muscle and skin.科学家过去指出,细胞的生长是不可逆的。我们始自一个受精卵,然后沦为由不成熟期、并未分化的细胞构成的胚胎,再行渐渐发育为由专门细胞包含的个体,还包括血液、骨骼、肌肉和皮肤。In 1962, Dr. Gurdon, while trying to understand how simple, undifferentiated cells became all the other cells in the body, performed an audacious experiment. He removed the DNA from a frog egg and replaced it with the DNA of a mature cell taken from a tadpole. The egg developed into a healthy, cloned tadpole. (The same approach would be used to create Dolly the sheep in 1996.)1962年,格登还在希望理解并未分化的非常简单细胞是如何变为人体内所有其它细胞的,那时他就做到了一项大胆的试验。

格登从一枚青蛙卵子中去除DNA,再行将从蝌蚪身上萃取的成熟期细胞的DNA放进这枚卵子内,后来该卵子发育成一只身体健康的克隆蝌蚪。(1996年克隆羊多莉的问世也是用的这种方法。)The frog experiment was an effort to answer a pure scientific question about how we came to be formed. There was no foreseeable therapeutic benefit, said Dr. Gurdon in an interview. Now 79, Dr. Gurdon is a professor at the Gurdon Institute, part of Cambridge University.格登拒绝接受专访时说,那个青蛙试验只不过是在希望问有关我们是如何构成的纯科学问题,当时并没可意识到的化疗益处。


如今,79岁的格登是英国剑桥大学(Cambridge University)格登学院(Gurdon Institute)的一名教授。Dr. Yamanaka, 50, was born in the year Dr. Gurdon did his frog experiment. Dr. Yamanaka would eventually ponder a related question: Could the Gurdon reprogramming trick be done without using eggs-which, in human cases, can be hard to come by?山中伸弥今年50岁,他出生于的那年格登正在做到青蛙试验,而他也必将思维一个涉及问题:格登的新的编程技术能否在不必卵子的情况下已完成?明确到人类试验上,这一点很难做。

Dr. Yamanaka had the answer a few years later. He demonstrated that by adding just four genes to a mature cell, he could turn it into an embryonic-like state. He first achieved this with mouse cells, and in 2007 he reported the same result for human cells. He transformed those cells, in turn, into heart, nerve and other human tissue in a lab.山中伸弥在几年后获得了答案。他向世人证明,只需将四个基因引进一个成熟期细胞,就可将该细胞改变为类胚胎状态。

他首先用老鼠细胞顺利做这一点,然后在2007年又宣告用人类细胞顺利已完成了这一改变。他将那些细胞在试验室里依序培育为了心脏、神经和其它人类组织细胞。Without [Dr. Gurdons] work we would never have started this risky project 12 years ago, said Dr. Yamanaka, who is a professor at Kyoto University and affiliated with the Gladstone Institutes in San Francisco, in an interview.山中伸弥在拒绝接受专访时说,没格登的工作,我们总有一天会在12年前著手这项有风险的项目。山中伸弥是日本京都大学(Kyoto University)教授兼任美国旧金山格莱斯顿研究院(Gladstone Institutes)高级研究员。




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